Select an object with the Physique modifier. > Modify panel > Physique rollout > Bulge Editor
The Bulge Editor is an alternative to using Bulge Sub-Object to create and edit bulge angles. The difference is that the Bulge Editor allows you to create, select, and edit cross sections in a Cross Section and Profile view. Creating and editing cross sections allows you to "bulge" the mesh. Using Bulge Sub-Object, creating and editing bulge angles will take place in the viewports. However, all of the parameter changes you make in the Bulge Editor, are also reflected on the mesh in the viewports.
On the Modify panel, you access the Bulge Editor from either the Physique rollout or from the Bulge rollout when Bulge Sub-Object is active. The Bulge Editor works exclusively with bulge angles. Tendons are created using Tendons Sub-Object and are edited in the viewports.
Tip: For easier creation of bulge angles, you should create a simple animation that moves the limb into extreme orientations. In the case of the human arm, you might set keyframes with the arms down against the body, extended to the sides, bent at the elbows, and finally more relaxed with the hands touching the shoulders. By scrubbing the time slider, you can easily choose one of many intermediate or extreme orientations. This will save time when creating Bulge Angles because you won't need to exit the Physique sub-object level to change the orientation of the mesh. You can create and set multiple Bulge Angles without ever leaving the Bulge Editor or Bulge Sub-object level.
To create a new bulge angle using the Bulge Editor
Click the Bulge Editor button at the top level of the Physique modifier, or in Link Sub-Object, or in Bulge Sub-Object to display the Bulge Editor.
Being in Bulge sub-object level provides the added benefit of letting you work in either the Bulge Editor or Bulge Sub-Object interchangeably.
Select a link in the viewports.
Click Insert Bulge Angle on the toolbar.
Physique creates a new bulge angle. The number of the bulge angle name in the Current Bulge Angle field increments.
Type a descriptive name in the Current Bulge Angle field.
It is a good idea to change the color of the newly created bulge angle. Do this by clicking Bulge Angle Color in Bulge Sub-Object and selecting a color in the Bulge Angle Color dialog.
Click Insert CS Slice on the Bulge Editor toolbar and click in the Profile view to create and position a cross section.
Do this if no appropriate cross sections exist.
Rotate the joint to the desired angle in the viewports.
You will have to exit Bulge Sub-Object, select the appropriate biped limb and rotate it. For biceps, rotate the biped forearm to ninety degrees, for example. If an animation is loaded, rather than exiting Bulge Sub-Object, simply scrub the time slider to a frame that has the limbs at an appropriate angle.
Edit cross section control points in the Bulge Editor Cross Section view to "bulge" the mesh.
As control points are scaled or moved in the Cross Section view, the mesh "bulges" in the viewports.
Click Set Bulge Angle on the Bulge Editor toolbar. This records the current angle of the joint.
When the joint angle is reached, the mesh bulges. By default, Physique creates one bulge angle when Physique is first used to attach a mesh to the biped in Figure mode. So, you only need to create and set one additional bulge angle to have an arm or leg that bulges when the biped joints are rotated.
To change a bulge angle value
In the Bulge Editor, make sure the bulge angle you want to reset is displayed in the Current Bulge Angle field.
In a viewport, change the angle between the active link and its child link.
Rotate a biped limb or use the time slider to move to a frame that has the limb rotated correctly.
In the Bulge Editor, click Set Bulge Angle.
The angle of the joint is set for the displayed bulge angle. When the biped limb rotates to this angle, the mesh bulge effect is at full strength.
To choose a specific bulge angle for editing
Click the downward pointing arrow on the Current Bulge Angle dropdown.
The full list of bulge angle names appears.
Click the name of the bulge angle you want to edit.
The Bulge Editor's Cross Section and Profile views update to show the cross sections associated with the newly selected bulge angle.
To delete a bulge angle
Click the downward pointing arrow of the Bulge Angle dropdown.
The full list of bulge angle names appears.
Click the name of the bulge angle you want to delete.
Click Delete Bulge Angle.
You can't delete the default bulge angle; a link must always have at least one bulge angle defined.
To add a cross section
In the Bulge Editor, make sure that the bulge angle you want to edit is displayed in the Current Bulge Angle field.
Turn on Insert CS Slice.
Click the link in the Profile view at the point where you want the cross section to be.
You can also add cross sections to the child link.
To delete a cross section
Select a cross section in the Profile view.
The selected cross section turns red.
Click Delete CS Slice.
You cannot delete the default cross section at the joint between the link and its child.
To make a cross section the active cross section
Select a cross section in Profile View.
The selected cross section displays in Cross Section view. Change its shape by selecting and editing control points in Cross Section view. This will bulge the mesh at the location of the cross section.
To select multiple cross sections, do one of the following
Change parameters for multiple cross sections by selecting them and changing the influence and power parameters for example.
Turn on Select and Translate CS.
Select a cross section in the Profile view.
Use CTRL+click to add cross sections to the selection.
Or, click Select and Translate CS then drag a rectangular region in the Profile view. All cross sections that the region surrounds or crosses are selected.
ALT+click removes a cross section from the selection.
To move cross sections along the link
Move a cross section to reposition where on the mesh a bulge occurs.
Select the cross sections to move.
Click Select and Translate CS on the toolbar.
If you are moving a single cross section, you can skip step 1 and click the cross section after you click Select and Translate CS Slice.
Drag left or right in the Profile view to move the cross section (or cross sections) left or right.
You cannot move cross sections through each other.
To copy and paste cross sections
Select the cross section to copy.
Click Copy Selected CS.
Select a cross section to paste over.
Click Paste Selected CS.
The cross section you pasted now has the shape of the cross section you copied.
Note: You can copy a cross section and paste it to a similar cross section on another link. Create a bulge angle and an appropriate cross section on the target link before pasting. Use Mirror selected CS after pasting if necessary.
To change the shape of a cross section
Select a cross section in the Profile view.
Use the selection and control point tools to move, scale, or rotate control points on the cross section in the Cross Section view.
To change the Profile view orientation
In the Cross Section view, move the cursor to the outer end of the orientation bar.
The cursor changes to a shape like the Cross Section view.
Drag to rotate the orientation bar.
When you release the mouse, the Profile view will automatically update.
Select Scale Rotate Control Points: Select, scale, and rotate selected control points of a cross section in the Cross Section view window.
This is the same as using the MOVE tool in the 3DS MAX viewports. Control points are simultaneously scaled and rotated around the link which in effect "moves" them.
Select a cross section in the Profile view first. Then select and move control points in the Cross Section view to deform the mesh.
Select and Rotate Ctrl Pts: Select and rotate control points in and around the center of the link in Cross Section view.
This does not twist the mesh, if the cross section is not a circle, a bulge migrates around the mesh.
Select and Scale Ctrl Pts: Select and scale control points about the link center in the Cross Section view.
If all cross section control points are scaled, the mesh bulges uniformly.
Draw Ctrl Pts: Draw a cross section in the cross section window. The mesh bulges based on the shape you draw.
In the Cross Section view, you can draw the cross section interactively, placing control points at each resolution step.
The number of control points created depends on the cross section resolution. You can freeze existing control points by selecting them in the Cross Section view and holding down the CTRL key as you draw.
Note: In the Profile view, you can draw the profile which places a control point on each cross section in the bulge angle. This is most useful when you have multiple cross sections in the bulge angle. You can rotate the orientation bar to draw whichever profile you desire. (Imagine the Cross Section view being like drawing around the arm, and the Profile view like drawing along the length of the arm.)
Insert Ctrl Pts: Insert a single control point on a cross section in the cross section window.
Add and position control points to sculpt the cross section and control exactly where a bulge occurs on the mesh.
Delete Ctrl Pts: Delete control points. First select the control points in the Cross Section view, and then click Delete Ctrl Pts.
Previous Link/Next Link: Move to the next or previous link in the hierarchy. The Cross Section and Profile views update to display the appropriate cross sections.
The Profile view displays the parent link on the left and the child link on the right.
Mirror Selected CS: Mirror the cross section across the vertical plane running between the green profile reference points at the top and bottom of the Cross Section View.
The mesh bulges on the opposite side of the link.
Select and Translate CS: Select and move a cross section along the link.
The bulge on the mesh migrates up and down the link as the cross section is moved.
Insert Cross Section Slice: Click this button and then click in the Profile view to create and locate a new cross section on either the parent or child link.
Extra cross sections give you more control of how and where the mesh bulges.
Delete Cross Section Slice: Deletes the currently selected cross section.
Select a cross section in the Profile view then click Delete Cross Section Slice.
Copy Selected CS: Copies the selected cross section.
You can copy a cross section from one link to another link. Create a new bulge angle with an appropriate cross section in the target link first, then copy the cross section parameters form the source cross section, select the target cross section and click Paste Selected CS.
Paste Selected CS: Pastes copied cross section parameters onto another cross section.
First select a cross section in the Profile View and click Copy. Then select another cross section in the Profile View and click Paste.
Set Bulge Angle: Sets the effect of the current Bulge Angle to the skeleton's current joint angle.
First set the joint to the orientation at which you want the bulge, then click this button. During an animation, whenever the joint rotates near this angle, the mesh will bulge.
Insert Bulge Angle: Adds a new bulge angle for the selected link.
The Current Bulge Angle field displays a bulge angle name with the number incremented.
Type in a descriptive name for any new bulge angle, such as "Arm at 90".
By default, one Bulge Angle is created in the Figure mode pose when Physique creates links. Only one additional bulge angle will allow you to bulge the mesh. You can create more bulge angles for further control, if you like.
Delete Bulge Angle: Deletes the current bulge angle. The current bulge angle displays in the Current Bulge Angle field.
First select a bulge angle in the Current Bulge Angle dropdown, and then click Delete Bulge Angle.
Select Nearest Bulge Angle: Turn on to select the bulge angle nearest to the current joint angle.
If a joint bends over time, you can use the Time slider to select a bulge angle. If you click Play, you can see the Current Bulge Angle field change to reflect the nearest bulge angle to the current angle of the selected link and its child (If two or more bulge angles for the limb exist).
Current Bulge Angle (field and dropdown): Displays the current Bulge Angle. Select a bulge angle in the dropdown for editing or renaming.
Type a descriptive name for a newly created bulge angle.
When a new bulge angle is created with the Insert Bulge Angle button, this field displays the new bulge angle name. Use the dropdown to select other bulge angles.
Cross Section View
The Cross Section view displays an outline of the active cross section. In the Profile view the active cross section is a bright red color. It is possible to select multiple cross sections in the Profile view using either a window selection or CTRL+click to add cross sections. This allows you to dial in cross section parameters for all of them at once. Only one "active" cross section, however, can be viewed and edited in the Cross Section view. Selected but inactive cross sections display in a dark red color in the Cross Section and Profile views.
Edit cross sections to bulge the mesh.
Gray Square: Represents the link at the center of the cross section.
Control Points: Display as small black crosses on the control spline, or as black squares with a white center, when they are selected.
Resolution Lines: Display as gray lines that surround the link radially. Control points "snap" to these lines as they are positioned.
Resolution can be increased using the Resolution parameter on the Bulge rollout in Bulge Sub-Object. The Cross Section view, however, always displays 36 resolution lines.
Red Line: The control spline for the selected cross section.
The shape of the spline determines where mesh deformation occurs.
Green Line: Represents mesh deformation.
This updates in Play mode according to the angle of the limb and the bulge angle parameters.
Orientation Bar: Select the end of this bar in the Cross Section view and rotate it to change the orientation of the section and profile views.
This yellow bar is a visual reference at a fixed location in the viewports. You can determine the orientation of the Cross Section view by comparing the placement of the yellow bar.
Use Profile View to select, move, and copy cross sections on the selected link and its child. Select a cross section in Profile View to display and edit a cross section in Cross Section view. Window select or use CTRL+click to select multiple cross sections. Although only one cross section at a time is active in Cross Section view, you can select multiple cross sections and change parameters for all of them at the same time. Insert a new cross section by clicking Create CS Slice and clicking on the Profile View to position it.
The Profile View is a schematic profile of two links. The currently selected link is on the left, and its child link is on the right. If the selected link is an end link, the outline of the right half of the Profile view turns gray.
Cross sections are shown as vertical bars across the profile. The active cross section is red. Unselected cross sections are white. Cross sections that are selected but not active are dark red.
The control spline is red and the deformation spline is green. This is similar to Cross Section view.
Draw in Profile View
Use the Draw tool in Profile view to change the control spline for the selected link and its child. This changes the cross section shapes as you "draw" in the Profile view.
Profile View Orientation
Use the Cross Section view orientation bar to change the orientation of the Profile view.
Bulge Angle parameters
Use the Bulge panel to change bulge parameters for the currently active bulge angle.
Set parameters for bulge angles
Bulge Angles: Displays bulge angle parameters in the panel.
Influence: The range of angles through which the bulge influences the skin. Range=0 to 180; Default=90 degrees.
For example, if you've set a bulge angle for the joint at 90 degrees, an Influence value of 40 means that the bulge effect begins to appear when the rotating joint reaches 50 degrees (90-40) or 130 degrees (90+40).
Power: Controls how smoothly or abruptly the bulge takes effect.
At 0 the bulge takes effect immediately, without interpolated easing. As values increase, the bulge eases in gradually. A value of 10 will bulge the mesh abruptly when the set angle is reached. Range=0 to 10; Default=2.5.
Weight: Increases the effect of the current bulge angle relative to the effect of any other bulges. Range=0 to 100; Default=1.0.
Cross Section parameters
Use the Cross Section panel to change the cross section settings for a particular link. The Bulge Editor and Bulge sub-object are synchronized so you can work in either or both and get the same results. Value change in the Bulge Editor are reflected in Bulge sub-object and vice versa.
Cross Sections: Displays cross section parameters in the panel.
Sections: Sets the number of cross sections for the selected link.
Rather than manually inserting cross sections in the Profile view, use Sections to create cross sections. For a thigh or biceps bulge, you may only need one cross section in the middle of the link.
Sections=1 above and Sections=8 below
Divisions: Sets the number of control points evenly distributed around the cross section control spline.
Divisions=4 above and Divisions=8 below
Resolution: Sets the number of radial divisions around the cross section. Control points snap to the nearest resolution line.
Entire Link: Selects all cross sections for all bulge angles in the selected link. Use this to globally change parameters for all cross sections on a link. This also affects the Copy Selected CS and Paste Selected CS commands.
While Entire Link is selected, Copy Selected CS copies all cross sections for all bulges, and Paste Selected CS pastes all cross sections for all bulges. Entire Link is useful for copying all the bulges from one arm or leg to another.
Note: Selecting Entire Link here will also display "Entire Link" in the Current Bulge Angle name field on the Bulge rollout in Bulge sub-object.